Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research 2021-10-17T10:24:42-04:00 Prof. Mahmoud Rushdi Open Journal Systems <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Focus and Scope&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;"><strong>Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research</strong>&nbsp;is an international journal that publishes researches in all matters relevant to the veterinary profession. The mission of the Journal is to provide students, veterinarians and researchers with the current advanced researches in different veterinary disciplines. The key objective of the Journal is to promote the art and science of veterinary medicine and the betterment of animal health and production.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Articles will be peer-reviewed, published online as a full text, and under the Open Access publishing model.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Print): 2090-6269</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Online): 2090-6277</span>&nbsp;</p> Study on Lice Infestation, Risk Factors and In-vitro Effect of Datura stramonium, Opuntia ficus indica, Jatropha curcas and Ricinus cominu on Bovicola ovis 2021-10-17T10:24:42-04:00 sisay Alemu sisay <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>A&nbsp;cross-sectional&nbsp;and experimental study was conducted to examine the presence of lice in sheep, assess&nbsp;the phytochemicals&nbsp;present in leaf extracts of <em>Datura stramonium, Opuntia ficus indica, Jatropha curcas</em> and ether seed oil extract of <em>Ricinus cominus</em>, and to evaluate their louscidal efficacy against <em>Bovicola ovis</em>. A total of 384 sheep were examined for&nbsp;the presence&nbsp;of <em>B. ovis.</em> Each plant was subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening for the presence or absence of secondary&nbsp;metabolites. The selected medicinal plants and a commercially used acaricide (0.1% diazinon) were examined for their louscidal activity against <em>B. ovis</em> at different time intervals using the&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;adult immersion test at concentrations of 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/ml. The study revealed 28.3% (109/384) of&nbsp;the examined&nbsp;sheep were infested by <em>B. ovis </em>showing significantly difference with age and body condition score. The findings showed that crude leaf extract of <em>D. stramonium, J.&nbsp;curcas,&nbsp;</em>and<em> R. cominus</em> seed oil caused high&nbsp;mortality&nbsp;of <em>B. ovis</em> at all concentrations with comparable effect&nbsp;to&nbsp;the activity of 0.1% diazinon within 24 hours of exposure. Moreover, crude leaf&nbsp;extract&nbsp;of <em>O. ficus indica</em> produced 63% mortality of <em>B. ovis</em> within 24 hours of exposure at 200 mg/ml concentration. The study revealed that crude leaf extracts of <em>D. stramonium </em>and<em> J. curcas</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;crude&nbsp;extract&nbsp;of <em>R.</em><em>&nbsp;cominus</em> seed oil had strong louscidal activity at lower concentrations against <em>B. ovis</em> and this suggests the possible use of <em>D. stramonium </em>and<em> J. curcas</em> leaf as well as <em>R. cominus</em> seed oil as a potential alternative to synthetic acaricides for the control of <em>B. ovis</em> infestations. Therefore, further investigation needs to be designed on their safety,&nbsp;<em>in vivo</em>&nbsp;efficacy,&nbsp;and&nbsp;cost-effectiveness&nbsp;of the products that exhibit strong louscidal activity with a view of substituting&nbsp;conventional&nbsp;synthetic acaricides.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: <em>Bovicola ovis; In-vitro; Medicinal plants; Mortality; phytochemical screening</em></p> Copyright (c) Organoleptic Quality and Nutrition of Rice Straw Silage Utilizing Local Microorganisms (MOL) of Cattle Rumen Fluid at Different Inoculum Levels 2021-10-17T09:26:25-04:00 Gerson Frans Bira <p>Feed quality very depends on changes in the weather where in short rainy conditions the feed is abundant, mean while, long dry conditions cause feed availability to be limited. One of the abundant feeds is rice straw, but the use of rice straw needs to be considered for its nutritional content, thus its utilization requires to be processed first. This study aimed to utilize local microorganisms (MOL) of Bali cattle rumen fluid at different inoculum levels on the quality of fermented rice straw silage to over come feed shortages in dryland. The study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 4 replications, namely R0: Rice Straw + Rice Bran 10% + molasses 3% (Without MOL of cattle &nbsp;rumen fluid/control); R1 : Rice Straw + Rice Bran 10% + molasses 3% + MOL of cattle &nbsp;rumen fluid 5%; R2 : Rice Straw + Rice Bran 10% + molasses 3% + MOL of cattle &nbsp;rumen fluid 10%; R3: Rice Straw + Rice Bran 10% + molasses 3% + MOL of cattle &nbsp;rumen fluid 15%. The percentage of molasses and cattle &nbsp;rumen fluid was adjusted to the weight of chopped rice straw. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (Anova). The results showed that the treatment had a significant effect (P&lt;0.05) on the organoleptic quality (color, texture, smell, presence of fungi and pH) and organic matter, crude protein, extract eter, crude fiber, carbohydrate, nitrogen free extract and gross energy (nutritional content) of rice straw silage, dry matter and gross energy had no significant effect (P&gt;0.05). It can be concluded that the higher MOL of cattle &nbsp;rumen fluid level use, the greater organoleptic quality and nutritional content of rice straw silage obtained</p> Copyright (c) Using peptide as replacement of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on pig: a systematic review and meta-regression 2021-10-17T09:23:33-04:00 Danung Nur Adli Muhammad Miftakhus Sholikin Novia Qomariyah Tri Rachmanto Prihambodo Osfar Sjofjan Cecep Hidayat Sadarman Sadarman Rizki Amalia Nurfitriani Anuraga Jayanegara Rondius Solfaine Nahrowi Nahrowi <p>A systematic review and meta-regression was to investigate using peptide as replacement of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on pig. A dataset was created based on an algorithm for peer-reviewed articles published from 2004 to 2019. The peer-reviewed published articles were evaluated strictly following the eligibility criteria for inclusion. Meta-regression were performed using a non-linear mixed model (nlme) library provided by R Studio 4.1.1 software. A structure algorithm was constructed using ‘magick’, ‘ggplot’, ‘ggplot2’ and ‘cowplot’ add-ons to create a meta-regression. In this study, meta-regression between year of publication and number of pig included in the experiments was associated with growth performance and diarrhea with p = 0.032 and p &lt; 0.163, respectively. Meanwhile, the source of peptide intercepts for these parameters were 38.33 (p = 0.052) and 48.44 (p = &lt; 0.071), respectively. The scientific evidence from the meta-analysis based on the in-vivo studies demonstrates that both form and dosage of the anti-microbial help to beneficial effect on the pig.</p> Copyright (c) Cytotoxicity and histopathological analysis of Capsicum frutescens via Artemia salina 2021-10-12T01:46:02-04:00 Parinda Jamrus Wannee Jiraungkoorskul <p>Capsicum genus contains many species of sweet and hot chili peppers. <em>Capsicum frutescens</em> is one of the important chili pepper to use as flavor, aroma and spices in the national cuisine. It has also been used as medicinal agents. The phytochemical compound which is responsible for the pungency is capsaicin. For control safety consumption, therefore the toxicity or side effect needs to investigate. The aim of this research was evaluated the amount of total phenols contents from different factors such as colors (red and green) and fruit parts (pericarp, capsaicin gland or placenta, and seed) of <em>C. frutescens</em> aqueous extraction in 1, 3, 5, 10 and 24 hours. &nbsp;The highest total phenolic content was shown in the 24 h extraction. So this extraction time was investigated the cytotoxicity and histopathological alteration by using brine shrimp, <em>Artemia salinia</em> as an animal model. Ten adults <em>A. salina</em> were incubated at room temperature for 24 hours with various concentrations of chili. The mortality number of <em>A. salina</em> was recorded and the median lethal concentration value was calculated. The highest toxicity was reported in the green pericarp &nbsp;group. The primarily target organ was the intestine of brine shrimp. Enterocytes showed abnormal morphology such as edema, hyperplasia, disorganized arrangement, and finally necrosis. Moreover, the pericarp of the green chili was shown the most severity results. This information will remind the effect of this plant.</p> Copyright (c) Effect of diet restriction and polymorphism of bone morphogenetic protein-15 and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) on reproductive performance of three Egyptian fat tail sheep breeds 2021-10-12T01:41:44-04:00 Amal Mahmoud Abo El-Maaty Mohamed A. Abdelhafez Karima F Mahrous <p>Several genes are controlling prolificay of sheep. The bone morphogenetic protein-15 and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) are control reproductivity of sheep. This study aimed to eplore diet restriction and the polymorphism in the bone morphogenetic protein-15 (<em>BMP</em>15) and growth differentiation factor-9 (<em>GDF</em>9) genes on ovulation and reproductive hormones in three sheep breeds. Ovaries of Rahmani ewes (R, <em>n</em>=56), Barki (B, <em>n</em>=56), and Ossimi ewes (O, <em>n</em>=50) were scanned to determine the preovulatory follicles and ovulation. The harvested sera were used for assaying progesterone, leptin, insulin-like growth Factor-I, and insulin. Whole blood samples were used for gene analysis using two PCR primers for amplifying the fragment 141-bp for <em>Fec</em>XG site (exon-2) of <em>the BMP</em>15 gene and 139-bp for <em>Fec</em>GH locus (exon-1) of <em>the GDF</em>9 gene. The output amplicons were digested (RFLP) with <em>Hinf</em>I and <em>Dde</em>I endonucleases. Results revealed no mutation in <em>the Fec</em>XG locus in all breeds. <em>Fec</em>GH showed mutations but not in all breeds. Treated O received half dietary requirements for four weeks were the youngest (<em>P=</em>0.0001). Barki had the lightest bodyweight (<em>P=</em>0.017). Treated ewes had a higher (<em>P=</em>0.047) number of large follicles compared to their controls. Treated B and R got larger (<em>P=</em>0.0001) dominant follicles. The ovulation rate did not vary within the diet treated breeds but was lower than their control. Control O and R had higher (<em>P=</em>0.0001) ovulation rate, compared to B. Leptin concentrations were low (<em>P=</em>0.047) in treated B and R. The lowest (<em>P=</em>0.031) insulin concentrations were observed in treated O. In conclusion, the <em>BMP</em>15 loci showed no polymorphism, while the <em>GDF</em>9 loci were polymorphic in all breeds and treatments. Nutritional status and age modified ovulation rate in sheep.</p> Copyright (c)