Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Focus and Scope </span></strong></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;"><strong>Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research</strong> is an international journal that publishes researches in all matters relevant to the veterinary profession. The mission of the Journal is to provide students, veterinarians and researchers with the current advanced researches in different veterinary disciplines. The key objective of the Journal is to promote the art and science of veterinary medicine and the betterment of animal health and production.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Articles will be peer-reviewed, published online as a full text, and under the Open Access publishing model.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Print): 2090-6269</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Online): 2090-6277</span> </p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"> </p> Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research en-US Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research 2090-6269 <p>Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles under the following conditions: Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International&nbsp;(CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).</p> <p dir="LTR">For more information:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank"><img src="" alt="" width="88" height="31"></a></p> <div class="six columns omega"> <p><strong>Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs&nbsp;<br>CC BY-NC-ND</strong></p> <p><strong>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives&nbsp;4.0 International&nbsp;(CC BY-NC-ND&nbsp;4.0) license</a></strong></p> </div> Complexities of molecular identification of γ-herpesviruses: lessons from MCFV <p>The <em>Herpesviridae</em> family is subdivided into the three subfamilies, namely α-<em>herpersvirinae</em>, <em>β-herpesvirinae</em> and <em>γ</em><em>-herpesvirinae</em>. All members of the family are characterized by a common structure consisting of a large linear double-stranded DNA genetic core packaged into a proteic icosahedral capsid and further enclosed in a phospholipidic bilayer envelope of cellular origin. Herpesviruses are characterized, on one side, by a high stability of the genome during virus replication, however, on the other side by a high capability to change rapidly in response to natural evolutionary selecting pressure. Therefore, there is a continuous emergence and establishment of new viruses. In this contest γ-herpesviruses, whose contribution to disease outbreaks in wildlife population has often been underestimated, pose a serious problem due to their ability to cross species barriers, infect new hosts and give rise to newly emerged viruses or virus variants in reservoirs. The problem is exacerbated by the absence of vaccines and effective treatments, such as for Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) in cattle or MCF-like diseases, caused by the Malignant Catarrhal Fever Viruses (MCFVs). MCFV can infect both livestock and wild animals sporadically, however when it does, it can cause clinical disease with important welfare implications, dramatic pathological changes and often has death as outcome. Due to the inability to isolate the majority of the γ-herpesviruses <em>in vitro</em>, their detection and characterization necessarily involves molecular methodologies aimed at diagnosing, identifying and resolving their phylogenetic origins and the evolutionary relationship with the host species. This information is ultimately necessary to improve the control of the disease spread, and to better identify the source of outbreaks, which can be seriously detrimental to zoological collections, especially for endangered species. This review provides an overview of the currently available methodologies applied for identification and characterization of MCFVs, critically describes benefits and disadvantages of these, recognises the gaps to be addressed and identifies future diagnostic opportunities.</p> Lauretta Turin Copyright (c) 13 1 Quality Assessment of Some Imported and Local Canned Tuna sold in Kafrelsheikh, Egypt <p>This study was conducted to evaluate and compare between some local and imported canned tuna products sold in supermarkets of Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, through physicochemical, bacteriological and sensory parameters assessment also, determining mercury and histamine level to ensure product safety. The results revealed that all examined tuna samples physiochemical parameters (pH, TVN, and TBA) were compatible with the Egyptian specifications and considered safe for consumption. The microbial examinations indicated that samples show incidence of <em>S. aureus</em> was 44% for imported tuna. While for local chunk and shredded were 56% and 67%, respectively. In addition to detection of its enterotoxins, which were 11% and 22% for local chunk and shredded samples, respectively. The enterotoxins of isolated <em>S. aureus</em> were type A, detected from local chunk and types A, C, and D from local shredded samples. The incidence of anaerobic bacteria was 22% and 33% for local chunk and shredded samples, respectively, but not detected in imported samples with no detection of <em>Clostridium perfringens</em> in all local and imported samples. However, the imported and local samples were significantly different. All local tuna samples contained high level of mercury exceeded the permissible limits of 0.5 mg/kg while, the imported samples within the limit.&nbsp; Also, histamine levels were found within the Egyptian Standards of (20 mg/100 g) although there was a significant difference between imported and local samples. In conclusion, the results pointed out that all examined local and imported canned tuna samples were in agreement with the Egyptian and other standards making them considered safe for human consumption.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Wageh Darwish Nancy Nagy Ghada A.K. Kirrella Nader Y. Moustafa Reda Abdallah Copyright (c) 13 1 Overview of some selected virulence and antibiotic resistance genes in Campylobacter coli isolated from broiler chickens <p><em>Campylobacter coli </em>is the more common zoonotic pathogen and poultry are&nbsp;the foremost&nbsp;blamed&nbsp;source of&nbsp;contamination<em>.</em> Therefore, tested 50 chicken pooled samples from apparently healthy and diseased broilers suffered from diarrhea and mortality from various broiler farms in the governorate of Kafr El-Sheikh which revealed 11 <em>Campylobacter coli </em>isolates with a percentage of 22%. On examination of the antimicrobial resistance profile showed high resistance to ampicillin and streptomycin with a percentage of 100% followed by 90.9% for kanamycin and oxytetracycline then cefotaxime with a percentage of 72.7% while, susceptibility was observed for amikacin, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin with the percentage of 100%, 72.7%, and 54.5%, respectively. Genotypically testing the virulence and antibiotic resistance genes; Virulence genes showed the highest percentage was 100% for <em>ciaB, flaA, </em>and <em>cdtC </em>followed by <em>virB11 </em>(n=10/11) 90.9% while, <em>dnaJ</em> <em>and</em><em> pldA </em>were the lowest detection (9.1%) and (18.2%), respectively. Furthermore, the antibiotic resistance genes; <em>tetO and cmeB </em>were harbored in all isolates. In conclusion, <em>C. coli</em> isolates present in poultry showed a multi-drug resistance appearance in combination with a high prevalence of virulence genes which may cause public health problems.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Wageh Darwish Mayada A.M. Abou Zeid AbdElhafez Samir Heba Badr Copyright (c) 13 1 The Promising Role of the Potential Medical Benefits of Cannabidiol Derived from an Herbal Plant to Enhance the Hepatic defense in Adult Male Rats <p>A critical natural chemical substance present in cannabis Sativa plants that may have therapeutic benefits is Cannabidiol or CBD. The inquiry was made to assess CBD's possible protection against liver injury. Fifty Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing (150±25g) were divided into five equal groups. Group I received distilled water orally, while Group II received an intraperitoneal injection of Doxorubicin (18 mg/kg bwt). Group III received CBD orally, while Group IV received 1 ml of CBD (26 mg/kg bwt) and Group V received Trimetazidine (10 mg/kg bwt), in addition to a single dose of Doxorubicin (18 mg/kg bwt) on the 11th day for both groups (IV, V). The results revealed that the administration of CBD (26 mg/kg bwt) demonstrated a significant improvement in lowering liver enzyme activity (ALT and AST), as well as an impact on decreasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and MDA in liver tissue linked to liver histopathology results, resulting in an increase in serum levels of albumin, total protein, and oxidative stress parameters (SOD and GSH) in rats. In conclusion, Cannabidiol's potential protective properties may be due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Thus, CBD-derived compounds have long saved interest as a cure for a broad choice of hepatic disorders and it will be a natural remedy used for many common ailments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Wageh Darwish Nabil A. Soliman Samih I. El Dahmy Amr A. Shalaby Khadija A. Mohammed Copyright (c) 13 1 Pharmacological studies on tildipirosin in calves <p>Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the primary health problem in the beef cattle industry worldwide. Tildipirosin was injected as a metaphylaxis to healthy animals and also as a therapeutic to the clinically diseased animal at a dose of 4 mg/kg B.W. TD is effective in reducing the mortality rate and increasing the recovery rate from <em>P. multocida</em>&nbsp;infection which induces damage to the bronchioles and alveoli with fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia represented by dilated bronchiole with caseated material in its lumen associated with severe leukocytic cells infiltration in the wall, multifocal areas of necrosis organized exudate infiltrated with many neutrophils in alveoli. PCR is considered the test of choice in the diagnosis of Pasteurella as it can identify organisms at any level regardless of tiny quantities of bacteria’s genome, consequently, the sensitivity and specificity of the test increased. Tildipirosin injection caused no significant changes in RBC count after treatment for the treated healthy and treated diseased group compared with the control group. Tildipirosin showed no significant changes in hemoglobin content and HCT of the treated healthy group but a significant decrease in TD treated diseased group was revealed post-treatment compared to the control group. Single subcutaneous injection of Tildipirosin causes an important decrease in MCV, and MCH levels in TD treated diseased group and decreasing in the MCHC of TD treated healthy group at day 7 compared to the control group. Tildipirosin causes no significant changes in Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in TD-treated healthy while it increased in the TD-treated diseased group at all days after treatment compared to the control group. No significant changes occur in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level of TD treated healthy group and TD treated diseased group compared to the control group.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Wageh Darwish Hadeer Magdy Mohamed El-Diasty Nesma Rasheed Elsayed M.G Copyright (c) 13 1