Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research https://advetresearch.com/index.php/AVR <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Focus and Scope </span></strong></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;"><strong>Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research</strong> is an international journal that publishes researches in all matters relevant to the veterinary profession. The mission of the Journal is to provide students, veterinarians and researchers with the current advanced researches in different veterinary disciplines. The key objective of the Journal is to promote the art and science of veterinary medicine and the betterment of animal health and production.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Articles will be peer-reviewed, published online as a full text, and under the Open Access publishing model.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Print): 2090-6269</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Online): 2090-6277</span> </p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"> </p> en-US <p>Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles under the following conditions: Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International&nbsp;(CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).</p> <p dir="LTR">For more information:&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank"><img src="https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc-nd/3.0/88x31.png" alt="" width="88" height="31"></a></p> <div class="six columns omega"> <p><strong>Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs&nbsp;<br>CC BY-NC-ND</strong></p> <p><strong>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives&nbsp;4.0 International&nbsp;(CC BY-NC-ND&nbsp;4.0) license</a></strong></p> </div> editor@advetresearch.com (Prof. Mahmoud Rushdi) editor@advetresearch.com (Prof. Mahmoud Rushdi) Mon, 02 Jan 2023 00:04:54 -0500 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Dissemination assessment of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in farm animal manure using class 1 Integron as a biomarker https://advetresearch.com/index.php/AVR/article/view/1186 <p>Widely use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary and human medicine for clinical and nonclinical purposes lead to development of antimicrobial resistance. Resistance to antimicrobial agents spreads among bacteria via horizontal transmission of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) those mostly carrying antimicrobial resistance genes. Integron is one of these elements that able to capture and express of exogenous gene including antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs).In this study, we have used class 1 Integron as a biomarker to assess spreading of ARGs in animal environment specifically manure.DNA was extracted from farm animal manure then presence and quantity of Integron was tested using PCR and qPCR, while diversity of ARGs within gene cassette was examined by DNA sequencing and Blast tool. This study found that overall, 83% (100 out of 120 samples) of tested livestock manure was positive for the presence of Int1. The concentration of Int1 was ranged from 10<sup>6</sup> copies/g to 10<sup>10</sup> copies/g per gram of tested sample. Sulphonamide (Sul1) and ammonium compound as resistance-related gene cassettes were frequently detected in animal manure samples. The results showed that in Integron gene cassette functionally belong to five protein family including antibiotic resistance, efflux pump, heavy metal resistance, DNA repair protein and membrane protein.The evidence from current study indicates that livestock manure served as a reservoir of integrons and resistance genes and it considered as a point from which ARGS spread to natural environments via horizontal transmission.</p> Amjed Alsultan, Yathrib Al-Ubaidy Copyright (c) https://advetresearch.com/index.php/AVR/article/view/1186 Brucellosis in milk from cows with reproductive disorders: a comparative study of serological, bacterial, and molecular methods https://advetresearch.com/index.php/AVR/article/view/1217 <p>Brucellosis is a major animal disease that can be transmitted to humans, causing significant economic problems in developing countries, and poses dangerous health risks for dairy consumers. Therefore, sensitive and accurate diagnostic techniques for disease detection and treatment are required.&nbsp;<strong>In this study, we follow up on the accuracy of the methods for diagnosing brucellosis in milk </strong>by reporting on <strong>the relative sensitivity and specificity of the different techniques (serological, bacteriological, and molecular).</strong></p> <p>A total of 34.91% of the milk samples were found positive for brucellosis by the milk ring test (MRT), while 33.96% were found positive by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The relative-sensitivity and relative-specificity of the MRT were 93.55% and 89.33%, and 96.77% and 92% for ELISA, respectively. The detection of <em>Brucella</em> species in milk samples was 25.47%, and all <em>Brucella</em> spp. isolates were&nbsp;<em>B. melitensis</em>&nbsp;biovar 3. Both conventional and RT-PCR samples were positive at 28.3%. The results showed that the relative-sensitivities of the bacteriological culture, conventional, and RT-PCR techniques were 87.10%, 96.77%, and 96.77%, respectively, while the relative specificities were 100% each. Finally, the milk iELISA showed higher relative sensitivity and specificity than MRT.&nbsp;</p> <ol> <li><em> melitensis</em>biovar 3 is the predominant species isolated in the milk of cows with reproductive disorders. The high relative-sensitivity and relative-specificity of PCR, as well as its speed and low risk to laboratory workers, make it an extremely useful technique for brucellosis diagnosis.</li> </ol> Nashwa M. Helmy , Hoda M. Zaki , Aalaa Saad Copyright (c) https://advetresearch.com/index.php/AVR/article/view/1217 Reproductive and genotoxic effects of dinotefuran in male Sprague Dawley rats. https://advetresearch.com/index.php/AVR/article/view/1216 <p>The study objective was to evaluate the Genotoxic and reproductive effects of dinotefuran (DIN) insecticide in male Sprague Dawley rats. To achieve these objectives, sixty male Sprague Dawley rats of 10–12 weeks old were randomly divided into four equal groups; the first group was used as a control group; the other three groups were exposed to 40, 61, and 122 mg/kg body weight DIN by oral gavage for 8 weeks. Relative testicular weight, testosterone, FSH, LH, MDA, and GPx levels, sperm viability, sperm morphology, chromosomal aberrations assay, expression of IL-6&nbsp; and CD-68, and histopathological changes in testes of these rats were examined after 8 weeks. The results showed that DIN exposure resulted in a significant increase in testosterone, the percentage of dead and abnormal sperms, the percentage of metaphase cells with chromosomal aberrations, and expression of IL-6 and CD-68 but it decreased GPx levels. Histopathological examination of the testes revealed hypertrophied seminiferous tubules of testes with a disrupted arrangement of germinal epithelial cells accompanied by many necrotic areas.</p> wafaa hasanien, Ahmed , Mohamed , karam Copyright (c) https://advetresearch.com/index.php/AVR/article/view/1216 Some Pathogenic Microbial Causes of Mortality in Rabbit in North West of Delta, Egypt https://advetresearch.com/index.php/AVR/article/view/1215 <p>This study aim to investigate pathogenic microbial causes of mortalities in twenty rabbit flocks located in 4 governorates in North West of Delta Egypt during a period from 2019 to 2022.The mortality rate was varied from 10 to 90 % in either sex of different breeds and ages (15 day-18 month). Ten flocks (50%) were positive for Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) by HA and RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP60 gene indicated one sample (MW455128) was classic RHDV and eight strains (MW455120 - MW455127) were variant RHDV2.<em>Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (</em>EPEC<em>) </em>was the predominant isolated bacteria (60%), belonging to various serotypes (poly 1, O26 K60, poly 2, O55 K59, poly 2, O126 K71, poly 1, O111, and poly 3, O114), followed by<em> K. pneumoniae (35%), </em>which was determined to be virulent by PCR detection of the Uge gene (80%) and<em> rmpA (</em>40%), while the kfu gene was absent.<em> Staph. aureus</em> and<em> Pasteurella multocida </em>represented (30%) for each, while<em> pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>(20%) and<em> Salmonella was negative. </em>Pathologically, apoptosis was the most prominent lesion observed in liver, kidney, intestine, spleen, lung and heart, also there were severe enteritis, abscess in lung, liver and kidney and suppurative &nbsp;bronchopneumonia. By immunohistochemistry the RHDV antigen was detected in hepatic, splenic, renal, pulmonary and cardiac tissues. The findings of this investigation highpoints on the significance of RHDVs (classic G3-G5 and variant RHDV2 which become more predominant), <em>EPEC,</em> <em>K.</em> pneumonia, <em>S. aureus</em> ,<em> P. multocida</em> and <em>p. aeruginosa</em>&nbsp; as rabbit pathogens causing mortalities in studied Egyptian provinces. So that, these results are important in any effort to control rabbit pathogens in Egypt.</p> Eid G.S. Hussein, Rania I. El meslemany, Nessreen F. Anwar, Shymaa, M. Hosny, Hossam El sebaey, AbdEl Nabey Y.M. Tahoon Copyright (c) https://advetresearch.com/index.php/AVR/article/view/1215 First Detection and Molecular Characterization of Avian Reovirus (ARV) Variants in Egypt with studying the effect of Selenium Nanoparticles on Growth Performance after Experimental ARV challenge https://advetresearch.com/index.php/AVR/article/view/1210 <p>This study aimed to identify and characterize emerging ARV strains that originated from field outbreaks in commercial broiler flocks between 2021 and 2022 in El-Beheira and Qena governorates, Egypt. In addition, studying whether selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) treatment influenced the growth rate after the variant ARV challenge. First, the collected samples were propagated into embryonated chicken eggs via the yolk sac route for virus isolation. The ARV presence was confirmed by using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and characterized by sequencing of representative seven samples targeting the sigma C gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequences of the Sigma C-encoding gene revealed that the obtained variant ARV isolates were grouped in the genotypic cluster IV and genetically distant from the available commercial vaccines and vaccine-related field strains. The variant ARV isolates in this study were found to share only 42.02%-49.39% amino acid identity with the available commercial vaccine strains, including S1133, 1733, and 2408. Second, the effect of Se-NPs on the growth rate, gross and microscopic lesions was investigated, and the results revealed that the birds delivered Se-NPs without ARV challenge showed a mild, non-significant improvement in the mean body weights compared to the control (P&gt; 0.05) while the bird groups challenged with ARV and either treated/ not treated with Se-NPs and Se revealed a significant difference (P &lt; 0.05) in the mean body weights among each other and with the control group. ARV from the genotypic cluster IV isolated in this study caused gross and microscopic lesions in the experimentally infected birds and these lesions were mild and moderate in groups treated with Se-NPs and Se, respectively. To date, this is the first report of variant ARVs from clinically diseased commercial broiler flocks in Egypt. Intensive genetic characterization of the currently circulating ARV strains is crucial to strategize disease prevention and control.</p> Mahmoud Sabra, Eid G.S. Hussein, Nessreen F. Anwar, Hossam Sh. El Sebaey, Wesam M. Salem, Dina M. W. Shibat Elhamd Copyright (c) https://advetresearch.com/index.php/AVR/article/view/1210