Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Focus and Scope&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;"><strong>Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research</strong>&nbsp;is an international journal that publishes researches in all matters relevant to the veterinary profession. The mission of the Journal is to provide students, veterinarians and researchers with the current advanced researches in different veterinary disciplines. The key objective of the Journal is to promote the art and science of veterinary medicine and the betterment of animal health and production.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Articles will be peer-reviewed, published online as a full text, and under the Open Access publishing model.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Print): 2090-6269</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Online): 2090-6277</span>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles under the following conditions: Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International&nbsp;(CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).</p> <p dir="LTR">For more information:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank"><img src="" alt="" width="88" height="31"></a></p> <div class="six columns omega"> <p><strong>Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs&nbsp;<br>CC BY-NC-ND</strong></p> <p><strong>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives&nbsp;4.0 International&nbsp;(CC BY-NC-ND&nbsp;4.0) license</a></strong></p> </div> (Prof. Mahmoud Rushdi) (Prof. Mahmoud Rushdi) Sat, 02 Apr 2022 04:36:01 -0400 OJS 60 Comparison of Universal RT-PCRs to detect Alphavirus in samples of animals with encephalitis symptoms <p>Alphavirus species are globally distributed affecting humans and animals and are mostly zoonosis transmitted by arthropods. In Costa Rica, Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEEV) and Eastern equine encephalitis&nbsp; (EEEV) are endemic while no positive samples of Western equine encephalitis (WEEV) have yet been detected by serology.&nbsp; PCR and sequencing methods are powerful tools to establish not only a specific etiology but subtypes, mutations, and phylogeographic analysis. The purpose of this study is to compare several Universal PCR methods to detect the presence of alphavirus in brain samples of animals with nervous symptoms. Of four RT-PCR Universal Alphavirus compared, one was selected to diagnose alphavirus in 8 different brain locations. The hippocampus, basal nuclei, and spinal cord locations show moderate amplification bands at the level of the positive control. Of the 70&nbsp; brain samples tested 30 were from equines, 5 out of them were positive for Alphavirus, and two could be sequenced from a pool of these locations and were confirmed as VEEV subtype IE. Torii RT-PCR was selected as the most sensitive and specificity Universal Rt-PCR for diagnosis of Alphavirus from pools of the hippocampus, basal nuclei, and spinal cord, based on the suitability of reagents, equipment, and workflow, for the national diagnostic laboratory in Costa Rica.</p> Benal Leon Copyright (c) Prevalence and distribution of Sarcocystis in Buffaloes and Sheep Slaughtered in Egypt <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Buffaloes are considered one of the emerging sources of red meat, particularly in Middle Eastern countries such as Egypt. However, buffaloes might act as a source for the transmission of some foodborne pathogens to humans.&nbsp;<em>Sarcocys</em>tis spp. is cyst forming protozoa that contains more than 200 species and belong to the phylum&nbsp;<em>Apicomplexa</em>. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of&nbsp;<em>Sarcocystis spp</em>. in buffalo and sheep carcasses slaughtered in Egypt macroscopically and microscopically. For this purpose, a total of 400 buffalo and sheep carcasses were examined at Tanta abattoir, Egypt for the detection of&nbsp;<em>Sarcocystis spp.</em>&nbsp;from the time period July 2020 to June 2021. The results revealed that the prevalence of macroscopic sarcocysts was 26.5% in slaughtered buffaloes and 0% in slaughtered sheep, while the prevalence of microscopic sarcocysts was 56% in slaughtered buffaloes and 80.5% in slaughtered sheep. The prevalence of sarcocysts in old buffaloes and sheep was higher than in young buffaloes and sheep. The most affected organs with microscopic sarcocysts were the oesophagus followed by the tongue, masseter muscle, skeletal muscles and finally heart. The obtained results confirmed that the examined buffaloes and sheep are infected with&nbsp;<em>Sarcocystis</em>&nbsp;species due to the abundance of final hosts, especially dogs and cats that encourage the spreading of infection by this protozoan parasite. Therefore, efficient cooking of buffalo meat is highly recommended before serving to humans.</p> Amina Elrais Copyright (c) Cathepsin L is required for completion of oocyte meiotic maturation in mammals <p>Infertility is a major concern affecting a huge population worldwide. Aneuploidy is one of the leading causes of the infertility, usually originated from errors that happens in meiosis I as chromosomal misalignment and abnormal chromosomal segregation. Recent research showed that cathepsins family play an important role in affecting the oocytes developmental competence in many species. Cathepsin B inhibition improved bovine developmental competence of the oocytes, especially in the low-quality oocytes. Here, we are the first to introduce the significance of another member of this family, cathepsin L (CTSL) in the process of oocyte maturation using mouse oocyte model.&nbsp; In this study we evaluated the expression of CTSL during oocyte meiotic maturation and the effect of CTSL inhibition using specific inhibitor “SCP110” on the subsequent maturation process. We found, CTSL is expressed in all stages of Meiosis I. In addition, inhibition of CTSL resulted in delaying the maturation time by elongation the time required for extrusion of the polar body (PBE). Moreover, CTSL inhibition reduced the maturation rate compared to the control group as we found a significant decrease in PBE percent. Trying to understand the reason of the lower maturation rates, we stained the chromosomes and spindles at metaphase I stage, we found a significant increase in chromosomal misalignment at metaphase plate. Finally, we evaluated matured oocytes quality after CTSL inhibition, importantly, aneuploidy incidence was increased significantly after CTSL inhibition. In summary, CTSL is required for normal meiosis completion in oocytes and production of healthy euploid egg.</p> Eman Awad, Wael Bedir Eldomany, Abdelmonem Montaser, Samy Zaabel Copyright (c) Effects of kisspeptin-10 on the steroidogenic capacity and metabolic aspects of bovine granulosa cells in vitro <p>Kisspeptin (Kp) potently stimulates the reproductive hormone secretion, modulates the cellular metabolic machinery, and induces the antioxidant defense mechanism <em>in vivo</em>. However, the data regarding steroidogenic, metabolic and antioxidant effects of Kp on granulosa cells on the level of <em>in vitro</em> studies are quiet rare leaving a wide gap in literature and giving a strong driving force for the present study. Thus, we aimed to clarify the effects of human kisspeptin-10 (Kp10) on these biological features in small and large bovine granulosa cells (BGCs). Upon preparation of the monolayer-BGCs, they were allocated to eight groups; two untreated-control groups, and six Kp10-treated groups according to the follicular size; three groups for each follicle size, supplemented with Kp10 at three different doses; 10<sup>-8</sup>, 10<sup>-7</sup> and 10<sup>-6 </sup>M [KP(I-III)<sub>S</sub> and KP(I-III)<sub>L</sub>, respectively]. Spent media and BGCs were pooled after 24 hours from addition of Kp10. Kisspeptin stimulated the glucose consumption in media by BGCs obtained from the small sized follicles for production of estradiol 17-β and progesterone. In the small-sized follicles, the TC levels were significantly decreased in response to KP(I, II)<sub>S</sub>, but not the KP(III)<sub>S</sub> compared to their control (C<sub>S</sub>). On the other hand, the KP(I-III)<sub>L</sub> significantly increased the TC levels compared to their control (C<sub>L</sub>). When Kp10 was used at the highest two doses, less glucose was consumed by BGCs collected from large sized follicles leading to low production of P<sub>4</sub> and preservation of cellular TC content. Improvement in the metabolic efficacy of BGCs in response to Kp10-treatment was evidenced by increased glucose utilization and decreased lactate production. Increased total antioxidant capacity versus decreased lipid peroxides in Kp10-treated groups could indicate that Kp10 induces cryoprotection by restoring the favorable redox status in BGCs. Those findings suggest that Kp10 causes a size- and dose- dependent physiological changes in the BGCs.</p> Nasser Sayed Abou khalil Copyright (c) Genetic assessment of Shiga toxin and antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolated from milk of cows infected with sub-clinical mastitis <p>Bovine subclinical mastitis was one of the most important health problems facing dairy industry, its impact exceeded the economic aspects and extended to potential negative effects on human health. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of <em>E. coli </em>as an important mastitic pathogen and identify some of its most important virulence gene as well as their antimicrobial resistance profile. In the present study <em>E. coli</em> was isolated and biochemically identified whereas out of 100 subclinically mastitic milk samples was nine samples were positive for <em>E. coli</em> with 9% prevalence rate. Serotyping of these isolates declared that 3 isolates were serotype O26:H11, 2 isolates in serotype O91:H21 and 1 isolate in each of serotypes O55:H7, O128:H2, O146:H21 and O124. Antimicrobial resistance profile of the obtained isolates showing that all the isolates were 100% resistant to both erythromycin and streptomycin, while 88.9% (8/9) were sensitive to gentamicin. The presence of 3 important virulence factors including shiga toxin1(<em>stx<sub>1</sub></em>), shiga toxin 2 (<em>stx<sub>2</sub></em>) and intimin (<em>eae</em>) genes, among the obtained isolates was reported using PCR. Molecular investigation revealing that 2 isolates contain the all studied virulence genes (<em>stx<sub>1</sub></em>, <em>stx<sub>2</sub></em> and <em>eae</em>), 3 isolates contain (<em>stx<sub>1</sub></em> and <em>stx<sub>2</sub></em>), while <em>stx<sub>1</sub></em> was detected solely in 2 isolates, also 1 isolate contain only <em>stx<sub>2</sub> </em>and lastly 1 isolate was negative for any of the studied virulence factors. In a conclusion, there was a 9% prevalence rate of <em>E. coli</em> in subclinically mastitic milk samples in the current study, indicating its importance as a mastitic pathogen. The shiga toxin genes (<em>stx<sub>1</sub></em> &amp; <em>stx<sub>2</sub></em>) are widely distributed among <em>E. coli</em> isolates, while the intimin (<em>eae</em>) gene is less prevalent in comparison to shiga toxin genes. Also the recorded high multidrug resistance rate among the isolates posing threat to human health though entrance of these strains into the human being food chain whereas the isolated <em>E. coli</em> strains had the highest resistance to erythromycin and Streptomycin (100%), followed by Clindamycin (77.8%), Nalidixic acid (66.7%), and Gentamicin (11.1%) was the lowest.</p> Khaled A.S. El-Khabaz, Lamia M.T. Elshrief, Enas Elmeligy Copyright (c)