Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Egyptian Raw and Sterile Milk
Keywords:Benzo[a]pyrene, EDI, Farm raw milk, GC-MS (gas chromatography- mass spectrometry), Market UHT sterile milk. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Σ PAHs), Σ PAH4, Σ PAH8.
This study was conducted to determine the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels and health risk of farm raw milk and ultra-heat treated (UHT) sterile market milk collected from different sources at Mansoura Province in Egypt using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS) during different seasons from August 2021 to December 2021. The results showed that the total amount of Σ18 PAHs levels was within the range of 11.778 – 26.331 µg/kg in farm milk samples and 1.151 – 2.946 µg/g in market UHT sterile milk. The results proved that the highest mean level of Σ PAHs in farm milk samples was 17.931 µg/kg followed by that of market sterile milk samples 2.123 µg/kg. European Commission (EC) has established safe level in milk for regulations require the concentrations of Benzo(a) pyrene (BaP) and the total Σ PAH4 to be less than 1.0 μg/kg. Mean concentration of BaP residues that was detected in farm milk samples was 0.251µg/kg with a range of 0.000 – 1.124 µg/kg and was not-detected in all market milk samples. Mean concentrations of Σ PAH4 levels were 0.561 µg/kg within the range of 0.046 – 2.433 µg/kg in farm milk and 0.047 µg/kg within the range of 0.012 – 0.110 µg/kg in market milk samples. These results were slightly higher than the critical limit set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The assessed dietary exposure was established by comparing the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) with Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). By comparing the obtained results, we found that for the BaP, the EDI for farm raw milk can be exceeded the maximum levels set in Regulation 1881/2006 (EFSA) for PAHs in milk, but UHT market sterile milk not exceeded the maximum levels. Therefore, there should be concerns regarding the effects of the consumption of different kinds of raw milk on the local population.
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