Immunolocalization of Androgen Receptor and PCNA in Male Reproductive Tract of Dromedary Camel during the Rutting Season


  • Khalid lkhodair Department of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Androgen receptor, PCNA, Camels, Testis, Prostate


The male reproductive tissues including the testis, epididymis, and prostate gland undergo dramatic changes in seasonal breeders from the breeding to non-breeding seasons. Classically, sex steroid hormones play important roles in the epididymis, and prostate gland morphology and functions. To clarify the relationship between androgen receptor (AR) expression and seasonal changes in the male dromedary camel, the immunolocalizations of AR and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were investigated in the testis, epididymis, ductus deference and prostate gland of the dromedary male camel in the breeding season (October to April) using immunohistochemistry, morphometrical measurements, and blood analysis. The testis showed a positive immunostaining of AR and PCNA. The reactions were observed in spermatogonia of the seminiferous epithelium. In the interstitial compartment, weak reaction was found in Leydig cells. Moreover, the epididymal epithelial cells displayed positive AR and PCNA reaction that was localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of principal, basal, and dark cells. The most extensive immunostaining of AR was also present in the body segment. However, the staining signals of AR decreased in the in the head and tail. Furthermore, the ampullary glands epithelium and its duct epithelium were positive for AR and PCNA.  Comparatively, the epithelial cells lining the ductus deferens in (DI) and (DM) displayed negative staining than those of other cell types. Finally, the immunostaining for AR and PCNA was detected in tubuloalveolar glands epithelium of both proximal part and distal part. However, in the fibromuscular layer, showed negative staining of both proximal and distal part. Strong immunostaining was detected in in the urothelial cells of prostatic urethra.




How to Cite

lkhodair, K. (2023). Immunolocalization of Androgen Receptor and PCNA in Male Reproductive Tract of Dromedary Camel during the Rutting Season. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research, 13(5), 820-826. Retrieved from



Original Research