Prevalence, Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing and Molecular Characterization of Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Clostridium perfringens in Fish
Keywords:Clostridium perfringens, Antibiotic susceptibility testing, Virulence, Antibiotic resistance genes, PCR
Fish is one of the most widely advertised foods, and Egypt is now recognized as a significant global fish producer. Human and animal intestinal illnesses and significant histotoxic illnesses are caused by foodborne microorganisms as Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens). This study was directed to monitor the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility testing, detection of some virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of multidrug-resistant C. perfringens recovered from fish. A total of 300 samples were collected from gills and intestine of Catfish, Tilapia and Dennis. Bacteriological examination was conducted, the obtained C. perfringens strains were tested for antibiogram, PCR screening of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. The investigated samples showed C. perfringens prevalence of 48.3%. C. perfringens isolates were resistant to several antibiotics as clindamycin (90%), cefprozil (80%), novobiocin (80%), aztreonam (80%) and erythromycin (80%). While, isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid (90%), ofloxacin (90%), chloramphenicol (90%) and rifampicin (80%). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) C. perfringens was detected in 80% of tested strains. PCR proved that the obtained C. perfringens strains were carrying the virulence genes: cpa, cpb and cpe in a prevalence of 60%, 40% and 10%, respectively. As well, bla and ermB antibiotic resistance genes were detected in C. perfringens strains in a prevalence of 100% for both genes. In conclusion, C. perfringens isolated from fish was multidrug- resistant (MDR) bacteria and was harbored cpa, cpb and cpe virulence genes and bla and ermB antibiotic resistance genes. The development of MDR C. perfringens is conceived as a public health threat.
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