Mitigation of Air Gas Emission, and Litter Microbial Quality in Muscovy Duck Pens: The Effectiveness of adding Clinoptilolite Zeolite as a Litter Amendment
Keywords:Microclimatic factors, Air gas emission, Clinoptilolite zeolite, ducks' litter amendment, Microbial quality
The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of adding clinoptilolite zeolite to litter on a mitigating of air gas emission, litter moisture content and microbial load in Muscovy duck pens. Eighty litter samples were collected in polyethylene bags to detect pH, moisture content and for isolation of different pathogenic bacteria during the entire length of study. In addition, air gas emission; ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon dioxide (CO2 as a greenhouse gas); besides micro-climatic factors (in-door temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity) in duck pens were measured twice a week using measurement instruments. Litter microbial quality, litter temperature, pH and moisture content were evaluated pre- and post-litter amendment. For duck's litter amendment, the effectiveness of adding clinoptilolite zeolite at different concentrations of 10 and 20 g/kg of litter on alleviation of air gas emission, litter moisture content and the microbial load was evaluated. The average values of air gas emission (NH3, CO2, and H2S) were recorded at higher concentration levels during the sixth week of age (16.44, 2671, 4.21 ppm, respectively). Total viable count (TVC) of litter was significantly increased during the fourth, fifth and sixth weeks of age (6.6x106±3.5x104, 5.73x106± 3.1x104 and 5.14x105± 5.1x103 CFU/g, respectively) at P<0.05. Clinoptilolite zeolite exhibited a significantly lower in the average values of air gas emission (NH3, CO2, and H2S) besides alleviation of Litter pH, moisture content, TVC, and microbial load. In conclusion, Microclimatic factors are an essential element for improving the healthy environment for ducks. Adding of clinoptilolite zeolite at concentrations of 10 and 20 g/kg of litter is highly effective in lowering concentration levels of NH3 and CO2. The absence of H2S reduce litter moisture and microbial load.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles under the following conditions: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license