Serological Evidence of Leptospira hardjo Antibodies and The Incidence of Reproductive Disorders in Selected Smallholder Cattle and Goat Farms from Maiduguri, Nigeria
The present study investigated the seroprevalence of Leptospira hardjo antibodies and their relationship to the burden of reproductive disorders associated with smallholder ruminant production systems in Maiduguri, northeastern Nigeria. We randomly collected 376 blood samples from 11 cattle (n=188) and 10 goats (n=188) farms in Maiduguri from April to September 2019. The farmers completed structured questionnaires to furnish information regarding herd characteristics and reproductive histories of farm animals. A serum IgG/IgM antibody-capture ELISA test kit with a sensitivity of 96.91%, specificity of 90.40%, positive and negative predictive values of 88.68% and 97.41%, respectively, was used for the detection of Leptospira hardjo antibodies from blood serum. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira hardjo was 4.26% (95%CI: 2.17-8.17) in cattle and 2.13% (95%CI: 0.83-5.34) in goats, respectively. Leptospira hardjo antibodies were detected in 4 (50%) out of the 8 cattle herds and 3 out of the 7 goat flocks with a history of reproductive disorders. At the present rate of detection of Leptospira hardjo antibodies in ruminants with histories of reproductive disorders, the current burden of the disease and its consequences on the reproductive efficiencies could be highly underestimated in the smallholder ruminant production system in the northeastern part of Nigeria.
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