Physiological Responses of Hallikar Bullocks for Ploughing Work under Farming Conditions
Keywords:Hallikar bullocks; Ploughing work; Physiological responses
The study was carried out in eight Hallikar bullocks aged three to five years maintained by the farmers for agricultural work at Manikikere Hosahalli, Tiptur taluk, Tumkur district, Karnataka which comes under the native tract of the breed. The pairs of bullocks were subjected to normal ploughing work followed for the cultivation of ragi crop, a small millet, using country made wooden plough with iron blade attached. Four hours of ploughing work was carried out continuously during morning session. Physiological responses such as heart rate (HR), pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (RR) per minute, ruminal motility (RM) per five minutes and rectal temperature (RT) in degree Fahrenheit were recorded before and after ploughing work. The mean values at pre work and post work were 66.38±0.42 and 90.75±0.98 for HR, 62.92±0.37 and 88.33±0.99 for PR, 26.46±0.64 and 56.75±1.87 for RR, 4.75±0.14 and 4.33±0.13 for RM and 101.10 ± 0.06 and 103.70±0.10 for RT, respectively. The results showed significant (P<0.05) increase of all the physiological parameters except ruminal motility. It was concluded that the physiological changes during ploughing work could be associated with increased metabolism which is required to provide adequate energy and oxygen to the working muscles and also to dissipate heat. Further, the present study throws some light on the welfare measures to be followed for working animals, such as providing adequate nutrition, drinking water facility, shelter and as well as restricting the working hours to four during morning session.
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