Protective Effects of Curcumin, Coumarin and Honey against Diclofenac Sodium-induced Testicular Dysfunction in Adult Mice
Keywords:Coumarin; Curcumin; Diclofenac; Honey
Although diclofenac (DS) is used in treating a wide variety of painful and inflammatory situations in humans and animals, its chronic administration is accompanied by side effects. Curcumin, coumarin, and honey are suggested to be promising strategies owing to their antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective properties. Thus, this study aimed to highlight the potential protective effects of these natural products on the testis of DS-challenged mice and its mechanistic tools. Thirty adult male mice were divided into five groups: control, DS, DS + curcumin, DS + coumarin and DS + honey. DS-exposed mice were characterized by a decrease in plasma FSH. 17beta-estradiol and FSH increased in the plasma of all the protected groups. Plasma LH increased in DS+curcumin and DS+coumarin groups compared to the DS group. DS increased testicular lipid peroxides and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and decreased testicular reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The plasma testosterone levels were within the standard limit in all experimental groups. Curcumin, coumarin, and honey decreased LPO and increased GSH and SOD, whereas coumarin and honey only decreased TAC. The natural products normalized the integrity of the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules. Immuno-staining of glutathione reductase (GR) and SOD 2 was increased in all groups relative to the control. Curcumin-, coumarin- and honey- supplemented groups, showed few numbers of apoptotic spermatogenic cells similar to the control group. The studied natural products provided efficient protective strategies against DS-induced testicular deterioration by their antioxidant, cytoprotective, and anti-apoptotic effects.
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