Could Phytobiotics replace Antibiotics as Feed Additives to Stimulate Production Performance and Health Status in Poultry? An Overview
Keywords:Antibiotics resistance, antimicrobial properties, growth promoter, immunomodulatory, plant products, poultry industry
In the poultry industry, using antibiotics as growth promoters has been found to significantly increase feed conversion efficiency and growth performance. Nevertheless, excessive use of antibiotics in the poultry production cycle may also lead to antimicrobial resistance in both poultry and humans. With regard to food safety reasons, most developed countries have banned the use of antibiotics in all animal feeds. Consequently, it may be necessary to explore other preventive alternatives for disease prevention and to stimulate fast growth rate in poultry. The interest in using phytobiotics as an alternative feed additive in poultry diets has increased following its natural, residue-free, and less toxic properties in contrast to synthetic antibiotics. Therefore, this review shed the light on the influences of using phytobiotics as a feed additive in commercial poultry diets and the results on the production performances and health status. Phytobiotics like cinnamon, cumin, oregano, clove, thyme, rosemary, sage, green tea, garlic, fenugreek, pepper, ginger, and other plant mixtures were found to consist of growth-promoting properties that enhance digestibility, stimulate feed intake, and improve growth in poultry. The carry-over effect leads to improved carcass characteristics and meat quality as value-added products. Additionally, various studies have also reported that some plant extracts from thyme, turmeric, lemon, green tea, cinnamon, cumin, wild mushroom, and garlic have antimicrobial effects as well as immunomodulatory function when they are complemented in poultry diets. In summary, phytobiotics can be used effectively to replace antibiotics as feed additives in enhancing production and health performances of poultry for food security while preventing antibiotic resistance.
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